NITI Aayog study: India has some of the lowest R&D expenditures worldwide

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According to a study by the government think tank NITI Aayog and the Institute for Competitiveness, India spends some of the least on research and development (R&D) in the entire world.
In fact, R&D spending in India has decreased, falling from 0.8 percent of GDP in 2008-09 to 0.7 percent in 2017-18.

According to data, India has a lower GERD than the other BRICS countries. Spending amounts for Brazil, Russia, China, and South Africa are respectively 1.2 percent, 1.1 percent, over 2 percent, and 0.8 percent. Around 1.8 percent is the global average.

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